Human Development Report 2016

Publication Year: 2017  / Sources: UNDP

The 2016 Human Development Report is the latest in the series of global Human Development Reports published
by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) since 1990 as independent, analytically and empirically
grounded discussions of major development issues, trends and policies.

Additional resources related to the 2016 Human Development Report can be found online at,
including digital versions of the Report and translations of the overview in more than 20 languages, an interactive
web version of the Report, a set of background papers and think pieces commissioned for the Report, interactive
maps and databases of human development indicators, full explanations of the sources and methodologies used in
the Report’s composite indices, country profiles and other background materials as well as previous global, regional
and national Human Development Reports. The 2016 Report and the best of Human Development Report Office
content, including publications, data, HDI rankings and related information can also be accessed on Apple iOS and
Android smartphones via a new and easy to use mobile app.

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Trafficking in Persons Report 2016

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: U.S. Department of State, Office of the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights

Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Cambodian adults and children migrate to other countries within the region and increasingly to the Middle East for work; many are subjected to forced labor on fishing vessels, in agriculture, in construction, in factories, and in domestic servitude—often through debt bondage—or to sex trafficking.

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Built on Slavery: Debt Bondage and Child Labour in Cambodia’s Brick Factories

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO)

The interviews and group discussions covered a range of topics including details of the interviewees’ daily lives and their work; their financial situations and the amount of debt owed by them or their families; how they had come to brick factory work; employment practices; the use of child labour; access to education; and injuries caused by factory machinery.

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The Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum

Cambodia ranks 89th, up one position from last year. Among Asian nations, it is the one that has posted the largest GCI score improvement—from 3.5 to 4.0—since 2007. Despite the positive trend, the challenges are many and significant. Cambodia ranks no better than 50th in any of the 12 pillars of the Index; in half of them it sits beyond the 100th mark. Of particular concern is its mediocre performance in three of the four areas that constitute the basic drivers of competitiveness: institutions (104th, up seven), infrastructure (106th, down five), and health and primary education (103rd, down 16). Moreover, Cambodia ranks 124th in higher education and training, its poorest performance in any pillar. It is estimated that secondary education enrollment is around 50 percent. With a median age of 23.8, Cambodia is home to one of the youngest populations in Asia. Ensuring access to quality of education for all should therefore be a policy priority.

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Rule of Law Index 2015

Publication Year: 2015  / Sources: World Justice Project (WJP)

The Rule of Law Index 2015 was prepared by The World Justice Project (WJP)’s research team. This research has measured on 8 factors: constraints on government powers, absence of corruption, open government, fundamental rights, order and security, regulatory enforcement, civil justice, and criminal justice. A ninth factor, informal justice, is measured but not included in aggregated scores and rankings. These factors are intended to reflect how people experience rule of law in everyday life. This WJP Rule of Law Index 2015 are derived from more than more than 100,000 household and expert surveys in 102 countries and jurisdictions. The report showed that Cambodia ranked 99 out of 102 countries and dead last in the East Asia and Pacific region.

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Discrimination Against Transgender Women in Cambodia’s Urban Centers

Publication Year: Sep 2016  / Sources: Cambodian Center for Human Rights (CCHR)

This research report documents human rights issues faced by transgender women in Cambodia’s Urban centers, and recommends actions to secure their rights to equality, dignity, health and security.

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Existence and Use of Phones that permit written communication in Khmer Script

Publication Year: 2013  / Sources: Open Institute (Phong Kimchhoy, Uy Sareth, Javier Sola)

This study responds to the need to understand if SMS can be used as a tool for government and civil society organizations to communicate directly with citizens and beneficiaries all over Cambodia, offering to them information and services in Khmer through mobile phones. It also attempts to understand if smart phones are or will become a key device for accessing Internet and social media in Cambodia, as these networks are quickly becoming the main source of information for youth.

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Internal Migration for Low-skilled and Unskilled Work in Cambodia: Preliminary Qualitative Results

Publication Year: June 2016  / Sources: Open Institute

In order to propose solutions to reduce the disconnect between the national demand for unskilled and low-skilled employment and potential national workers, it is first necessary to undertake qualitative research with the following objectives:
1. To have a preliminary understanding of the structure of the main sectors that absorb national migration: garment, construction, hospitality and security
2. To have a preliminary understanding of the present hiring process of local Cambodian employers in the targeted sectors
3. To have a preliminary understanding of internal migration paths and practices

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Internal Migration Patterns and Practices of Low-skilled and Unskilled Workers in Cambodia

Publication Year: Sep, 2016  / Sources: Open Institute

The data shows that there is constant availability of work all year round in the sectors of Manufacturing, Construction, Hospitality and Security, with a peak of labor demand after the two main holidays. The main and most effective method of communication used by companies to find new employees is to communicate the job opportunities to their existing workers, who relay this information to potential workers who might be interested. HR managers are nevertheless technology-savvy and they are open to use electronic channels to find new workers.

The main conclusion is that, while a clear mechanism for accessing low-skilled and unskilled employment exists in Cambodia based on the trust relationships between potential migrants and family members and friends who are already working, this
mechanism is not sufficient to meet the demand for unskilled and low-skilled labor in the country, nor does it provide work in Cambodia to all potential migrants who would prefer to work in their own country. A significant portion of cross-border migration is most probably motivated by this disconnect.

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Youth in Cambodia: A Force for Change

Publication Year: 2008  / Sources: Pact Cambodia

More than half the population of Cambodia is less than 20 years old, and youth comprise almost 20% of the total population. Unlike some countries in Southeast Asia where this percentage is expected to decline by 2030, the proportion of youth in the population is expected to peak in 2035 with average annual growth of 0.1% in 2005-2015 and 1.0% in 2025-2035.

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