Trafficking in Persons Report 2016

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: U.S. Department of State, Office of the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights

Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. Cambodian adults and children migrate to other countries within the region and increasingly to the Middle East for work; many are subjected to forced labor on fishing vessels, in agriculture, in construction, in factories, and in domestic servitude—often through debt bondage—or to sex trafficking.

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Doing Business 2017 (Cambodia Profile): Equal Opportunity for All

Publication Year: 2017  / Sources: World Bank Group

Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and labor market regulation.

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Built on Slavery: Debt Bondage and Child Labour in Cambodia’s Brick Factories

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO)

The interviews and group discussions covered a range of topics including details of the interviewees’ daily lives and their work; their financial situations and the amount of debt owed by them or their families; how they had come to brick factory work; employment practices; the use of child labour; access to education; and injuries caused by factory machinery.

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The Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum

Cambodia ranks 89th, up one position from last year. Among Asian nations, it is the one that has posted the largest GCI score improvement—from 3.5 to 4.0—since 2007. Despite the positive trend, the challenges are many and significant. Cambodia ranks no better than 50th in any of the 12 pillars of the Index; in half of them it sits beyond the 100th mark. Of particular concern is its mediocre performance in three of the four areas that constitute the basic drivers of competitiveness: institutions (104th, up seven), infrastructure (106th, down five), and health and primary education (103rd, down 16). Moreover, Cambodia ranks 124th in higher education and training, its poorest performance in any pillar. It is estimated that secondary education enrollment is around 50 percent. With a median age of 23.8, Cambodia is home to one of the youngest populations in Asia. Ensuring access to quality of education for all should therefore be a policy priority.

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The Human Capital Report 2016

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: World Economic Forum

The Human Capital Report aims to combine public international statistics, qualitative perception data and big data metrics to provide a comprehensive picture of the situation today as well as the opportunities for the future. The Human Capital Index quantifies how 130 countries are developing and deploying their human capital, and tracks progress over time. It takes a life-course approach to human capital, evaluating the levels of education, skills and employment available to people in five distinct age groups. In addition to the Index, the Report also explores skills in-depth through a unique partnership with LinkedIn and the emerging shape of the labour market on digital platforms, using data from, Didi Chuxing, Uber and Upwork.

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Internal Migration for Low-skilled and Unskilled Work in Cambodia: Preliminary Qualitative Results

Publication Year: June 2016  / Sources: Open Institute

In order to propose solutions to reduce the disconnect between the national demand for unskilled and low-skilled employment and potential national workers, it is first necessary to undertake qualitative research with the following objectives:
1. To have a preliminary understanding of the structure of the main sectors that absorb national migration: garment, construction, hospitality and security
2. To have a preliminary understanding of the present hiring process of local Cambodian employers in the targeted sectors
3. To have a preliminary understanding of internal migration paths and practices

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Internal Migration Patterns and Practices of Low-skilled and Unskilled Workers in Cambodia

Publication Year: Sep, 2016  / Sources: Open Institute

The data shows that there is constant availability of work all year round in the sectors of Manufacturing, Construction, Hospitality and Security, with a peak of labor demand after the two main holidays. The main and most effective method of communication used by companies to find new employees is to communicate the job opportunities to their existing workers, who relay this information to potential workers who might be interested. HR managers are nevertheless technology-savvy and they are open to use electronic channels to find new workers.

The main conclusion is that, while a clear mechanism for accessing low-skilled and unskilled employment exists in Cambodia based on the trust relationships between potential migrants and family members and friends who are already working, this
mechanism is not sufficient to meet the demand for unskilled and low-skilled labor in the country, nor does it provide work in Cambodia to all potential migrants who would prefer to work in their own country. A significant portion of cross-border migration is most probably motivated by this disconnect.

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World Employment and Social Outlook 2016: Trends for Youth

Publication Year: 2016  / Sources: International Labor Organization (ILO)

Global economic growth in 2016 is estimated to stand at 3.2 per cent, 0.4 percentage points lower than the figure predicted in late 2015. The downward revision is a result of recessions that were deeper than expected in some key emerging commodity-exporting countries, including Argentina, Brazil and the Russian Federation. In addition, growth in developing countries, at only 4.2 per cent in 2016, is at its lowest level since 2003. Despite anticipation of a slight improvement in global growth for 2017,
global investment and hiring decisions remain subdued in the face of the uncertainty generated by a rapidly changing environment. Consequently, the global youth unemployment rate is on the rise after a number of years of improvement,
and is expected to reach 13.1 per cent in 2016 (from 12.9 in 2015). This is very close to its historic peak in 2013 (at 13.2 per cent) and where it is expected to remain in 2017. As a result, after falling by some 3 million between 2012 and 2015, the number of unemployed youth globally will rise by half a million in 2016 to reach 71 million and will remain at this level in 2017.

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Global Wage Report 2014/15 – Wages and Income inequality

Publication Year: 2015  / Sources: International Labor Organization (ILO)

The Global Wage Report 2014/15 presents both the latest trends in average wages and an analysis of the role of wages in income inequality. The first part of the report shows that global wage growth in recent years was driven by emerging and developing economies, where real wages have been rising since 2007 although wage growth slowed in 2013 compared to 2012. In developed economies, wages generally remained stagnant in 2012 and 2013, and in a number of countries wages remained below their 2007 level. These trends are a matter of concern.

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ILO Policy Brief on Youth Employment in Cambodia

Publication Year: 2007  / Sources: International Labor Organization (ILO)

Cambodia has a young population with 39 per cent of the population in 2004 below 15 years of age, down from 43 per cent in 1998. By 2004 the dependency ratio showing the children and elderly as a percentage of the intermediate group was 74 per cent.1 Youth aged 15–24 represented 22 percent of the population that year. Large numbers of young people are entering
the labour force as a result of a baby boom in the 1980s. Measures must be taken to ensure that youth do not add to underemployment in the countryside or lead to higher rates of urban unemployment but instead contribute to growth and development through productive employment.

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